felicitys_mind (felicitys_mind) wrote,

Thoughts on the Meaning of "Deathly Hallows"

I was initially puzzled by the news that Book 7 would be titled Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. But Rowling is a fabulous wordsmith, and I believe she’s simultaneously working with multiple meanings in the phrase “deathly hallows.”   While the word “deathly” would seem plainly to mean ‘relating to or suggestive of death,’ “hallows” is an uncommon word less clear in meaning. American dictionaries only offer limited definitions for “hallow”; however, the Oxford English Dictionary offers numerous definitions for “hallow” in different parts of speech (listed below and expanded on 12-29).  I believe both the noun and verb definitions are pertinent to the story and what we know or strongly suspect will happen in Book 7, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.
Oxford English Dictionary entries:
Hallow, Noun (1)
1. A holy personage, a saint. (Little used after 1500, and now preserved only in All-Hallows and its combinations, q.v.)
2. In pl. applied to the shrines or relics of saints; the gods of the heathen or their shrines. In the phrase to seek hallows, to visit the shrines or relics of saints; orig. as in sense 1, the saints themselves being thought of as present at their shrines. Cf. quot. c1440 in 1.
3. hallow- in Comb. (chiefly in Sc.) is used for All-Hallow- = All Saints'-, in Hallow-day, Hallow-e'en, Hallowmas, Hallow-tide; also hallow-fair, a fair or market held at Hallowmas; hallow-fire, a bonfire kindled on All-hallow-e'en, an ancient Celtic observance.
Hallow, Noun (2)
A loud shout or cry, to incite dogs in the chase, to help combined effort, or to attract attention.
Hallow, Noun (3)
Obs. The parts of the hare given to hounds as a reward or encouragement after a successful chase.
Hallow, Verb (1)
1. trans. To make holy; to sanctify, purify.
2. To consecrate, set apart (a person or thing) as sacred to God; to dedicate to some sacred or religious use or office; to bless a thing so that it may be under the particular protection of a deity, or possess divine virtue. arch.
3. To honour as holy, to regard and treat with reverence or awe (esp. God or his name).
4. trans. To keep (a day, festival, etc.) holy; to observe solemnly.
Hallow, Verb (2)
1. trans. a. To chase or pursue with shouts. b. To urge on or incite with shouts. c. To call or summon in, back, etc. with shouting.
2. intr. To shout, in order to urge on dogs to the chase, assist combined effort, or attract attention.
3. trans. To shout (something) aloud.
Hallow, int.
Obs. An exclamation to arouse to action, or to excite attention.
Hallow: obscure form of Hollow
Deathly, Adjective
†1. Subject to death, mortal. Obs.
2. Causing death, deadly.
3. Of the nature of or resembling death, deathlike; gloomy, pale, etc. as death.
4. Of or pertaining to death. poetical.
Deathly, Adverb
†1. In a way causing or tending to death. Obs.
2. To a degree resembling death.
In the context of the series to date and what we know or strongly suspect will happen in the final book, it seems to me that Rowling is playing off multiple meanings simultaneously.
In terms of “hallows” as holy persons or saints (generally dead), we have James & Lily Potter, Sirius Black, and Albus Dumbledore, all dead and all “sanctified” persons in the story. The Christian references to each character are evident: James & Lily had Harry christened, Sirius was Harry’s godfather, and Dumbledore was closely associated with a traditional Christ-symbol, the phoenix (resurrection bird).
In Book 7, we know or expect Harry will “seek hallows” by making a type of pilgrimage to the place associated with those “sanctified” persons: Godric’s Hollow (Lily & James), 12 Grimmauld Place (Sirius), and Hogwarts (Dumbledore).
We expect Harry will find key information in each place that will help him to hunt and destroy Voldemort’s Horcruxes and ultimately vanquish Voldemort. In a manner of speaking, these people will “hallow” or call out to Harry from death and incite him and/or help him in combination in his quest to hunt the Horcruxes. We’ve seen an example of a type of “deathly hallow” at the end of GoF when the shades of Lily & James called out instructions to Harry that enabled him to escape the graveyard. I don’t expect any of these people to return as shades as in the Priori Incantatem spell nor do I expect Dumbledore will return as a ghost, but in a less dramatic fashion, they will all help Harry in Book 7 from beyond the grave. Harry will find an object or information at Godric’s Hollow that will help him, Harry will consult Dumbledore’s portrait at Hogwarts and possibly receive items and information (memories, pensieve, letter) that Dumbledore left behind for him, and Harry has already received assistance from Sirius by inheriting 12 Grimmauld Place, the Black mansion where the heavy gold locket was in OotP. I suspect the visit to 12GP, only possible because of Sirius left it to Harry, will enable the trio to unravel the puzzle of the fake Horcrux and note from RAB. Perhaps Harry will also be able to communicate with Sirius through the Veil in the DoM, although I find that scenario possible but not highly likely to happen.
In the non-Christian sense, hallows per the OED would also refer to Voldemort’s "heathen" Horcruxes and the places in which he has hidden them, each place having great significance to him because it was where he demonstrated his brilliance and magical superiority. He hid the Peverell ring in the Gaunt ruins where he framed Morfin for the Riddles’ murders, he meant to hide the Slytherin locket in the cave where he tortured two orphans with powers he had developed on his own, and he planned to use the diary at Hogwarts to release the basilisk from the Chamber of Secrets, just as he had done as a student when he killed Moaning Myrtle. So Harry will also be “seeking hallows” in Book 7 as he hunts for and destroys the remaining Horcruxes in the “shrines” where Voldemort has hidden them.
The phrase “deathly hallows” is a particularly good description for the Horcruxes themselves since the soul itself is a holy thing, but Voldemort has torn his and encased each soul fragment in an object to create a Horcrux, “wickedest of magical inventions.” The Horcruxes are examples of something good that has been perverted to an evil purpose, and Voldemort has effectively killed his humanity by making them.
For Harry, the destroyed Horcruxes will each be a type of “hallow” in the sense of a reward for a successful Horcrux hunt.
In the sense of the meaning "to make holy," the successive destruction of Voldemort's Horcruxes will possibly cause the soul fragments to reunite behind the Veil (my theory), which will ultimately make Voldemort's spirit whole again when the seventh part of his soul residing in his maimed body is released.  In other words, just as the Horcruxes form individual anchors on earth so that Voldemort cannot be killed even if his body is destroyed, the soul fragments from the destroyed Horcruxes will go behind the Veil and reunite, forming a new anchor; when the seventh part of his soul is finally separated from his body, it will be drawn behind the Veil with the others.  This is the only way I can see to prevent Voldemort from staying behind as a ghost.  Voldemort is terrified of death just as Sir Nicholas was, so something (like the new anchor) will have to be in place to prevent him from staying behind. 

Finally, we will probably see Harry putting each destroyed Horcrux vessel to good use, thereby reversing the corruption of the object from being turned into a Horcrux and effectively making it good (holy) again. We saw Dumbledore using the destroyed ring to show Slughorn that Voldemort was not invincible and to convince him to return to Hogwarts and help the Order, and we saw Harry use the destroyed diary to free Dobby.
And just adding another thought that Harry's wand wood--holly--also ties in with the idea of Harry making things whole and holy again since the OED lists "holy" as a variant spelling of holly and since the wood is associated with resurrection, eternal life, and holiness.  As many already know, Harry's holly wood is contrasted with Voldemort's yew wand wood (eternal life but also poison).
If Rowling is playing will all these meanings as I suspect she is, then my conclusion is that Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows is a brilliant title for the last book.
[UPDATE December 27, 2006
I’m adding further information to fuel our speculation that was prompted by reading the latest entries in Potter websites that I follow (these personal favorites are linked a little further down).
I still believe the title is brilliant for all the reasons stated above, but when I wrote the original entry for this post, I hadn’t fully considered that the title would have to have an element of mystery to be consistent with Rowling's other titles, and particularly since this is her final and most-anticipated book. In my 12-23 comment below to focusf1, I wrote that I had just been reading comments pointing to a graveyard at Hogwarts based on something one of the HP movie directors had mentioned that is getting serious consideration relative to the new book title. Here is the 2004 quote that I looked up today on Accio Quote (http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2004/1104-poadvd.htm):
Alfonso Cuaron: We needed a place where the kids could see the execution of Buckbeak, and we thought about having a graveyard. And we consulted Jo about it and she said "No, the graveyard is not there," and I said "Why?" And then she gave me the whole explanation of why the graveyard cannot be there, because it's in a different place of the castle. Because it's going to play...and she knows her thing, she knows exactly what's going to happen later. And once I remember having little people in some storyboards, playing some keyboards and an organ in the Great Hall. And Jo said "No, there are no little people in this universe." I said "Yes, it's like..." she says, "Yes, lovely image, but they don't make sense in this universe."
I never paid much attention to that quote, and it’s getting a lot of justified attention on HP forums because of “Deathly Hallows.” Cuaron (director of Prisoner of Azkaban) hints that Rowling said this Hogwarts graveyard would play a role in the story, and we haven’t see a graveyard at Hogwarts to date. Taking a hint from Travis in the comments below, I looked up the discussion regarding Dumbledore’s request to be buried at Hogwarts. As McGonagall told the other teachers about Dumbledore’s request, she said it would be up to the Ministry since “No other headmaster or headmistress has ever been—.“ (HBP29)  This is interesting because if the Hogwarts graveyard isn’t for the former heads, then who is buried there (since if not the former heads, then certainly not the teachers, groundskeepers, and castle elves)?  Doesn’t this suggest that the Hogwarts graveyard must contain the remains of the three Founders who stayed with the school (Godric Gryffindor, Rowena Ravenclaw, and Helga Hufflepuff)?
Moreover, several sharp readers have pointed out that Tolkien referred to a burial place in LOTR as the Hallows. I followed that hint as well and looked up those passages, and while I am not claiming that LOTR gives us the key to the meaning of Deathly Hallows, Rowling is admittedly a great borrower and adapter of legends, myths, folklore, and works of literature that influenced her—taking what she likes and making it uniquely her own with a twist or two. The similarities between the stories in the HP series and LOTR are only superficial, but I can believe she was influenced by works like LOTR and did adapt the bits she really liked for use in the HP books (just as she adapted alchemical imagery, Arthurian legends, folklore, etc.).  That would include names and their associations.   For example, in LOTR, the ill in Gondor are taken to the Houses of Healing where they are tended by Healers.  Filch's cat Mrs. Norris is named for one of Jane Austin's nosiest characters.  Certain characters and words do stick with her, and she does use them.
In a 2000 interview on Scholastic.com, Rowling said she had read LOTR at age 19 (http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2000/1000-scholastic-chat.htm).
Question: Hello, I was wondering how much Tolkien inspired and influenced your writing?
J.K. Rowling responds: Hard to say. I didn't read The Hobbit until after the first Harry book was written, though I read Lord of the Rings when I was nineteen. I think, setting aside the obvious fact that we both use myth and legend, that the similarities are fairly superficial. Tolkien created a whole new mythology, which I would never claim to have done. On the other hand, I think I have better jokes.
The LOTR contains a burial place in Gondor that Gandalf and Aragorn both refer to as the Hallows. The following quotes are taken from my 1994 Houghton Mifflin paperback edition of LOTR. The passages refer to the passages in which Denethor, the Steward of Gondor who has gone mad, is taking his feverish and unconscious son Faramir to the houses of the dead where he plans to burn himself and Faramir on a funeral pyre:
“Then they went on through the Citadel gate, where the sentinel stared at them in wonder and dismay as they passed by. Turning westward, they came at length to a door in the rearward wall of the sixth circle. Fen Hollen it was called, for it was kept ever shut save at times of funeral, and only the Lord of the City might use it that way, or those who bore the token of the tombs and tended the houses of the dead. Beyond it went a winding road that descended in many curves down to the narrow land under the shadow of Mindolluin’s precipice where stood the mansions of the dead Kings and of their Stewards.
A porter sat in a little house beside the way, and with fear in his eyes, he came forth bearing a lantern in his hand. At the Lord’s command he unlocked the door, and silently it swung back; and they passed through, taking the lantern from his hand. It was dark on the climbing road between ancient walls and many-pillared balusters looking in the swaying lantern-beam. Their slow feet echoed as they walked down, down, until at last they came to the Silent Street, Rath Dinen, between pale domes and empty halls and images of men long dead; and they entered the House of the Steward and set down their burden.
There Pippin, staring uneasily about him, saw that he was in a wide vaulted chamber, draped as it were with the great shadows that the little lantern threw upon its shrouded walls. And dimly to be seen were many rows of tables, carved of marble; and upon each table lay a sleeping form, hands folded, head pillowed upon stone.” Page 808
Denethor then released Pippin from his duties, and Pippin ran to find Gandalf. Pippin and Gandalf quickly returned to the tombs, where Gandalf confronted Denethor:
“What is this, my Lord?” said the wizard. “The houses of the dead are no places for the living. And why do men fight here in the Hallows when there is war enough before the Gate? Or has our Enemy come even to Rath Dinen?” Page 834
Aragorn later spoke the following to Beregond: “Beregond, by your sword blood was spilled in the Hallows, where that is forbidden. Page 947
I was so struck when I reread those passages. The first thing I noticed was that the LOTR characters descended to the Hallows; similarly, as John Granger often points out, at the end of every HP book, Harry has died a figurative death in a place that is literally or figuratively a kind of “underworld" or "lower realm” (John also notes that Harry is figuratively resurrected each time in the presence of a symbolic Christ-figure):
HP1: Harry dropped through a trap door in the floor to reach the series of enchantments
HP2: Harry slid through a tunnel in Myrtle’s bathroom to reach the Chamber of Secrets
HP3: Harry went down to the Hogwarts lake to help Sirius fight off the dementors (in the first book, we learned that the castle is visible from the lake, but high above the lake on a nearby mountaintop)
HP4: Harry was portkeyed to the graveyard in Little Hangleton, which was below the Riddle house, set on a nearby hillside, from whence Wormtail and Voldemort came to meet Harry
HP5: Harry descended to the Department of Mysteries
HP6 Harry descended a cliff to reach the sea cave
So I asked myself, is the reason no character has ever mentioned the Hogwarts graveyard to date that it’s below ground and the entrance does not indicate that it is a burial place? And if "Hallows" in the new title refers to a Hogwarts burial place, does "Deathly" mean that's where Harry will experience his figurative death in the last book (possibly, as Janet has speculated, tied to the Draught of Living Death, which has been amply set up but never paid off)? I can't believe Rowling would truly kill Harry off.
The second thing that struck me is that the entrance to the Hallows in LOTR is only accessible to a small and exclusive group of people (the Lord of the City or those bearing "the token of the tombs").   I don't know what Tolkien meant by the phrase "token of the tombs," but Harry, in the first five books has had to possess special knowledge or power or use a special object or some combination of those in order to succeed, and these things were known to only a very small and exclusive group of people. HBP broke the pattern because it's a two-parter with Book 7 so we didn't have the kind of resolution at the end as we did with the first five books. But it's something else to think about if indeed the Hallows of "Deathly Hallows" refers to the tomb of GG, RR, and HH.
The third thing I noticed was that in the LOTR, the Hallows are reserved for Gondor royalty (although two hobbits were eventually buried there next to Aragorn). Who could be considered Hogwarts royalty if not the Founders? And notably, in the scene describing Dumbledore's funeral and the creation of the White Tomb at the end of HBP, there are no other tombs or mausoleums described nearby, so if the Hallows in "Deathly Hallows" refers to the burial place of three Founders on the castle grounds, there is a tie-in with the meaning of hallowed as being "set apart." And was Harry Potter and the Hallows of Hogwarts the title Rowling said was ahead by a short nose (two consonants and a vowel) a few weeks ago?  If so, then even more reason to believe that the Hallows of the new title is specific to Hogwarts.
{Additional update 12-29. As I was skimming LOTR, I found another use of the word “hallow” used in the obscure sense of “hollow.” It is used twice at the end of the book to refer to a depression or hollow on the side of Mount Mindolluin where Gandalf and Aragorn find a sapling of the White Tree growing: “ . . . and there they found a path made in ages past that few now dared to tread. For it led up on to the mountain to a high hallow where only the kings had been wont to go.” Page 949 End mini-update}
None of this information nails down the meaning of "Deathly Hallows," but the Cuaron quote and Tolkien passages do, IMO, make me love this title even more and make me more eager to see what surprises Rowling has for us in the last book.
Special thanks to Janet, Travis, Pauli, and John (and the people they link to) for the suggestions that led to this update. Their weblogs/websites are all worth reading (on an ongoing basis), and especially for Book 7 title speculation. Although they all overlap to a degree in considering the various Book 7 theories currently in play, each one offers his or her own perspective in speculating about the new title:
Professional Hollywood screenwriter and teacher of screenwriting Janet Batchler at Quoth the Maven (http://quoththemaven.blogspot.com/) thinks Deathly Hallows will refer to a place we haven’t seen before. If you haven’t read Janet’s new book, What Will Harry Do? (Book 7 speculations based on the plot set-ups she’s pulled from canon and where she thinks they’ll lead), then you’re missing out on some excellent speculation.
Travis Prinzi at Sword of Gryffindor (http://swordofgryffindor.com/) and Hog’s Head Pubcasts has some thoughts of his own about the new title in several posts and pubcasts and considers other theories floating around. If you haven’t been reading his website or listening to his entertaining pubcasts (10 so far!), you might want to start. Note: The Arthurian legends have been much-discussed on the forums in relation to “Deathly Hallows,” and Travis had a post about the links between HP and the Arthurian legends over a year ago!
Pauli at Muggle Matters (http://www.mugglematters.com/) has several posts about the title that involve his own preliminary thoughts and later commentary on theories he’s been reading.
John Granger at Hogwarts Professor (http://www.hogwartsprofessor.com/) is an expert on the alchemical imagery in the HP series. His new weblog debuts with an excellent post on the new title and the alchemical meaning of the new title. John’s latest book, Unlocking Harry Potter: Five Keys for the Serious Reader, will be available in January 2007. Travis Prinzi read and reviewed the draft a few months ago and highly recommends it for the serious Potter fan. The book may be pre-ordered at www.Zossima.com. END UPDATE]

Oxford English Dictionary entries for Hallow:
Hallow, n. (1)
   1. A holy personage, a saint. (Little used after 1500, and now preserved only in All-Hallows and its combinations, q.v.)
   a885 Will of Alfred in Earle Land Ch. 148 On godes naman and on his hali¼ra. c1000 Ælfric Hom. II. 142 Cuðberhtus se hal¼a siððan ¼efremode mihti¼lice wundra on ðam mynstre wuni¼ende. c1000 I Saints' Lives (E.E.T.S.) II. 52 Swa swa seo hali¼e [St. Mary] ær foresæde. 1154 O.E. Chron. an. 1137 §5 Hi sæden openlice ðæt crist slep & his halechen. c1200 Trin. Coll. Hom. 5 Ure louerd wile cume and alle his haleŠen mid him. c1200 Ormin 6009 Bitwenenn Godess hallŠhenn. a1225 Juliana 76 As hit deh alhen [MS. B. halhe] to donne. 1230 Hali Meid. 19 Dream+þat nane halwes ne mahen. a1240 Lofsong in Cott. Hom. 217 Imennesse of haluwen. c1290 S. Eng. Leg. I. 53/227 HeiŠ halewe in heouene is. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 82 Grete halwe+As Seynt Cristyne & Seynt Fey. Ibid. 233 Mony ys the holy halwe, that her y bured ys. Ibid. 255 Ye relykes of halewen yfounde were. a1300 Cursor M. 10402 Of halus hei in heuen blis. Ibid. 29549 (Cott. Galba) It takes him fro þe cumpany of halows. c1300 Ibid. 22592 (Edin.) Es na halŠie [v. rr. halu, halwe] vndir þe heuin. 13+ Sir Beues 1218 (MS. A.) Deliure a þef fro þe galwe, He þe hateþafter be alle halwe! [v. rr. alle halowse, al halowes]. c1325 Prose Psalter li[i]. 9 In þe syŠt of þyn halwen. c1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 182, I vowe to Saynt Michael, & tille halwes þat are. 1340 Hampole Psalter v. 15 Ymange aungels & haloghs. 1340 I Pr. Consc. 5119 Alle his halghes sal with him come. c1350 Will. Palerne 371 To crist & to hal alwes. c1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 48 Acursed of god of fraunseis and of alle hawen. c1386 Chaucer Prol. 14 To ferne halwes [v.r. halowes] kowthe in sondry londes. 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) I. A chirche of al halwen+oure Lady is after Crist cheef halwe of al mankynde. c1400 Mandeville (Roxb.) xiii. 60 Him þai honoure and wirschepes before all oþer halowes. c1430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhode ii. cxlvii. (1869) 133 Ayenst god and alle hise halwen. c1440 Sir Gowther 380 Yet may she sum good halowe seche. c1489 Caxton Sonnes of Aymon iii. 99, I swere you vpon all halowes.  Ibid. xix. 418, I swere to you, sire, by all halowen. 1553 Becon Reliques of Rome (1563) 238 Martyrs, Confessours, and virgines, and the halowes of God. 1647 Pol. Ballads (1860) I. 67 Watson, thee I long to see By God, and by the Hallowes. [1876 Freeman Norm. Conq. V. 284 Men said openly that Christ slept and His hallows. (See quot. 1154.)] 
   2. In pl. applied to the shrines or relics of saints; the gods of the heathen or their shrines.
   In the phrase to seek hallows, to visit the shrines or relics of saints; orig. as in sense 1, the saints themselves being thought of as present at their shrines. Cf. quot. c1440 in 1.
   c1200 Vices & Virtues (1888) 3 Ðo menn ðe halleð gode behaten god te donne, oðer halŠe to sechen. c1385 Chaucer L.G.W. 1310 Dido, Sche sekith halwis & doth sacryfise. c1400 Destr. Troy 650 Swiftly to sweire vpon swete haloghes. Ibid. 10948 With Sacrifice solemne [þai] soghten þere halowes. c1489 Caxton Sonnes of Aymon xxvi. 552, I wylle+that ye bere wyth you the halowes for to make theym swere thervpon. 1523 Skelton Garl. Laurel 1636 Right is over the fallows Gone to seke hallows. 1561 Schole-ho. Wom. 309 in Hazl. E.P.P. IV. 117 On pilgremage then must they go, To Wilsdon, Barking, or to some hallowes. 
   b. holy of hallows: see holy.
   3. hallow- in Comb. (chiefly in Sc.) is used for All-Hallow- = All Saints'-, in Hallow-day, Hallow-e'en, Hallowmas, Hallow-tide; also hallow-fair, a fair or market held at Hallowmas; hallow-fire, a bonfire kindled on All-hallow-e'en, an ancient Celtic observance.
   1795 Macpherson Wyntoun's Cron. Gloss., Halow-fair is held on the day of all saints. 1799 Statist. Acc. Scotl. XXI. 145 (Jam.) But now the hallow fire, when kindled, is attended by children only. 
Hallow, n. (2)
   A loud shout or cry, to incite dogs in the chase, to help combined effort, or to attract attention.
   c1440 Promp. Parv. 223/2 Halow, schypmannys crye, celeuma. 1583 Stanyhurst Æneis ii. (Arb.) 45 With shouting clamorus hallow. 1603 Drayton Bar Wars ii. (R.), With noise of hounds and halloos as distraught. 1634 Milton Comus 481 List! list! I hear Some far-off hallo break the silent air. 1783 Cowper Epit. Hare 4 Whose foot ne'er tainted morning dew, Nor ear heard huntsmen's hallo. 1837 W. Irving Capt. Bonneville III. 226 Gallopping, with whoop and halloo, into the camp. 
Hallow, n. (3)
   The parts of the hare given to hounds as a reward or encouragement after a successful chase.
   c1420 Venery de Twety in Rel. Ant. I. 153 Whan the hare is take, and your houndes have ronne wele to hym ye shul blowe aftirward, and ye shul yef to your houndes the halow, and that is the syde, the shuldres, the nekke, and the hed, and the loyne shal to kechonne. 1486 Bk. St. Albans Eiijb, Wich rewarde when oon the erth it is dalt With all goode hunteris the halow it is calt. 1576 Turberv. Venerie 174 Which the Frenchman calleth the reward, and sometimes the quarey, but our old Tristram calleth it the hallow. 1688 R. Holme Armoury ii. 188/1 Hallow+a reward given to Hounds, of beast that are not beasts of Venery. 
Hallow. V. (1)
   1. trans. To make holy; to sanctify, purify.
   c1000 Ags. Gosp. John xvii. 19 Ic hal¼i¼e me sylfne þæt hi¼ syn eac ¼ehal¼ode. c1000 Ælfric Exod. xix. 10 „ehal¼a hi¼ todæ¼. c1200 Ormin 10803 He wollde uss hallŠhenn. a1225 Ancr. R. 396 Jesu Cristes blod þet haleweð boð þeos oðre. a1340 Hampole Psalter xvii. 28 Traist in him þat he will halighe þe. 1340 Ayenb. 237 MiŠtoul uor to halŠy ham þet hit onderuongeþ. 1382 Wyclif John xi. 55 Many of the cuntree stiŠeden vp to Jerusalem the day bifore pask, for to halowe them selue. Ibid. xvii. 17 Halwe thou hem in treuthe. c1532 G. Du Wes Introd. Fr. in Palsgr. 954 To halowe, sainctifier. 1638 Baker tr. Balzac's Lett. (vol. III). 25 Those women whose teares Antiquitie hath hallowed. 1837 R. Nicoll Poems (1843) 1 Chief of the Household Gods Which hallow Scotland's lowly cottage-homes! 1892 Westcott Gospel of Life 299 Christianity+meets and hallows our broadest views of nature and life. 
   2. To consecrate, set apart (a person or thing) as sacred to God; to dedicate to some sacred or religious use or office; to bless a thing so that it may be under the particular protection of a deity, or possess divine virtue. arch.
   971 Blickl. Hom. 205 Gif hit sie mannes ¼emet þæt he ciricean hal¼ian sceole. a1175 Cott. Hom. 223 On þan seofeðan deŠ he Šeendode his wurc+and þane deŠ halŠode. c1205 Lay. 17496 Þe king+hæt halŠien þe stude, þe hæhte Stanhenge. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 358 The pope asoyled & blessed Wyllam & al hys+And halewede hys baner. a1300 Cursor M. 8867 Quen þat þe templehalughd was. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xvi. lxxxvi. (1495) 582 Saphire stone was syngulerly halowed to Appolin. 1494 Fabyan Chron. I. cxxxii. (R.), For to dedicate and halowe the monastery of Seynt Denys in moost solempne wyse. 1547 Boorde Introd. Knowl. i. (1870) 121 The Kynges of Englande doth halowe euery yere Crampe rynges. 1579 Spenser Sheph. Cal. Feb. 210 Often crost with the priestes crewe, And often halowed with holy water dewe. 1648 Gage West. Ind. 152 Candlemas day+Bring their Candles to be blessed and hallowed. 1868 Freeman Norm. Conq. II. vii. 112 Leo+entered France+to hallow the newly built church of his monastery. 
   †b. To consecrate (a person) to an office, as bishop, king, etc. Obs.
   c900 tr. Bæda's Hist. i. xvi. [xxvii.] (1890) 62 Se hal¼a wer Agustinus+wæs ¼ehal¼od ercebiscop Ongolþeode. c1000 O.E. Chron. an. 979 On þys ¼eare wæs Æþelred to cininge ¼ehal¼od. 1154 Ibid. an. 1135 And halechede him to kinge on midewintre dæi. c1325 Metr. Hom. 79 Thir nonnes when that thai halowid ware, Thai toke thaire leue hame to fare. [1871 Freeman Norm. Conq. IV. xviii. 179 And there+the Lady Matilda was hallowed to Queen by Archbishop Ealdred. 1872 E. W. Robertson Hist. Ess. 207 In the reign of Offa+Ecgfrith was ‘hallowed to king’.] 
   †c. To consecrate (the eucharistic elements). Obs.
   c1200 Ormin 1727 Þær he Cristess flæsh and blod Hanndleþþ, hallŠheþþ, and offreþþ. 
   3. To honour as holy, to regard and treat with reverence or awe (esp. God or his name).
   a1000 Hymns v. 2 (Gr.) Sy þinum weorcum hal¼ad noma niðða bearnum! c1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. vi. 9 Fader ure þu þe ert on heofene, sye þin name ¼ehal¼ed. a1300 Cursor M. 25104 Halud be þi nam to neuen. 1382 Wyclif Deut. xxxii. 51 „e halwide not me amonge the sones of Yrael. a1440 Sir Degrev. 91 They hade halowed hys name Wyth gret nobullé. c1600 Shakes. Sonn. cviii, Euen as when first I hallowed thy faire name. 1611 Bible Matt. vi. 9 Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy Name. 1645 Ussher Body Div. (1647) 358 To hallow the name of God, is to separate it from all profane and unholy abuse, to a holy and reverend use. 
   4. trans. To keep (a day, festival, etc.) holy; to observe solemnly.
   971 Blickl. Hom. 37 Hal¼iaþ eower fæsten. c1175 Lamb. Hom. 45 To haliŠen and to wurðien þenne dei þe is icleped sunne dei. c1380 Wyclif Sel. Wks. III. 85 Have mynde to halwe þin holiday. 1389 Eng. Gilds (1870) 17 Euery brother & sister+shullen halwen euermore ye day of seint George. a1533 Ld. Berners Gold. Bk. M. Aurel. (1546) Dvijb, Halowyng the feaste of themperours natiuitie. 1552 Abp. Hamilton Catech. (1884) 66 Remember that thow hallow the Sabboth day. 1796 Coleridge Left Place of Retirement 10 Hallowing his Sabbath-day by quietness. 
   †b. absol. To keep holy day. Obs.
   c1200 Trin. Coll. Hom. 155 Hure riht time þenne men fasten shal oðer halŠen. 1303 R. Brunne Handl. Synne 929 Haleweþ wyþ us at þe noun In þe wurschyp of oure lady. 1496 Dives & Paup. (W. de W.) i. xviii. 51/1 Tyme to halowe and tyme to labour. 
Hallow, v. (2)
   1. trans. a. To chase or pursue with shouts. b. To urge on or incite with shouts. c. To call or summon in, back, etc. with shouting.
   c1340 Cursor M. (Trin.) 15833 Þei+foule halowed him+as he had ben an hounde. c1369 Chaucer Dethe Blaunche 379 Þe hert found is I-halowed and rechased fast long tyme. 1399 Langl. Rich. Redeles iii. 228 He was halowid and y-huntid, and y-hote trusse. 1530 Palsgr. 577/2, I halowe houndes with a krye. 1587 Fleming Contn. Holinshed III. 1003/1 To hallow home cardinall Poole their countriman. 1674 N. Cox Gentl. Recreat. i. (1677) 99 Hallow in your Hounds untill they have all undertaken it. 1696 S. Sewall Diary 13 Jan. (1878) I. 419, I went to Sheaf and he hallowed over Jno. Russell again. a1713 T. Ellwood Autobiog. (1765) 265 Clapping their Hands and hallowing them on to this evil Work. 1812 Sporting Mag. XXXIX. 184 They [fox hounds] were then halloed back. 
   2. intr. To shout, in order to urge on dogs to the chase, assist combined effort, or attract attention.
   c1420 Anturs of Arth. v, The hunteres they haulen [= halwen], by hurstes and by hoes. c1440 Promp. Parv. 224/1 Halowyn, or cryyn as schypmen (P. halowen with cry), celeumo. 1525 Ld. Berners Froiss. II. lxi. [lxiv.] 209 They+halowed after them as thoughe they had ben wolues. 1567 W. Wren in Hakluyt Voy. (1589) 149 When they hallowed we hallowed also. 1612 Drayton Polyolb. xiii. 216 The shepherd him pursues, and to his dog doth halow. 1634 Milton Comus 226, I cannot halloo to my brothers. 1815 W. H. Ireland Scribbleomania 2 Though loudly the Bards all against me may halloo, I rank with the time a true chip of Apollo. 
   3. trans. To shout (something) aloud.
   ?a1400 Morte Arth. 3319 What harmes he has hente he halowes fulle sone. 1601 Shakes. Twel. N. i. v. 291 Hallow your name to the reuerberate hilles. 1676 Dryden Aurengz. v. i. 2226 In your Ear Will hallow, Rebel, Tyrant, Murtherer. 1812 H. & J. Smith Rej. Addr. ix. (1873) 82 And never halloo ‘Heads below!’ 
   Hence "hallowing vbl. n. and ppl. a.
   13+ Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 1602 There watŠ blawyng of prys in mony breme horne, HeŠe halowing on hiŠe. 1483 Cath. Angl. 172/1 An Halowynge of hundis, boema. 1569 J. Sandford tr. Agrippa's Van. Artes Pref., The hallowinge Hunter, will set his houndes and hawkes upon me. 1597 Shakes. 2 Hen. IV, i. ii. 213 Hallowing and singing of Anthemes. 1755 B. Martin Mag. Arts & Sc. 156 Making great Noises by hallowing, hooting, etc. 
Hallow, int.
Obs.   An exclamation to arouse to action, or to excite attention.
   1674 ButlerGeneva Ballad 63 Heark! How he opens with full Cry! Hallow my Hearts, beware of Rome
   obs. or dial. form of hollow a.
Tags: book 7, deathly hallows
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